CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO THE HOUSEHOLD SUBJECTIVE WELL- BEING IN MACHAME VILLAGE, TANZANIA



CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM TO THE HOUSEHOLD SUBJECTIVE WELL- BEING
IN MACHAME VILLAGE, TANZANIA
 Africa Natural Tours
Africa Natural Tours (For Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Zanzibar) Tanzania safari company in Moshi
Specialized in:  Wildlife safaris, Mountain climbing, Cultural tourism and Beach holidays in East Africa
Contact +255 653 679 958


By Godfrey A. Ngaiza
(The founder of Africa Natural Tours)

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at assessing the contribution of tourism to the household subjective well- being. Specifically the study looked on identifying tourist activities carried out in Machame village, determining benefit of tourism activities towards household subjective well- being in Machame Village, identifying current challenges facing tourism towards household subjective well- being in Machame Village and examining means of strengthening tourism activities towards household subjective well- being in Machame. A cross- research design was applied. The population of this study involved villagers in Machame area. In this study 100 villagers in Machame area were sampled. The study used simple random sampling in gathering of data from study area. Interviews and questionnaires were used for collection of primary data. The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data which were coded, organized, processed and converted into tables, by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Software and Microsoft excel were used because it enabled proper description of ideas in form of tables, charts and figures which simplifies data interpretation. Villagers has responded on different tourism activities carried out in Machame village, such as business, handcraft, tour operator, guide and taxi, fruit selling, Hotel activities, Food vendor, Entertainment and Small business. Respondent had listed on different contributions such as employment creation, income generation, increased asset ownership, challenges such as cultural pollution and immoral behaviors were identified. Community perceived tourism as important and that it generally complemented and supported rather than conflicting with other economic activities.


1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Tourism is recognized as one of the fastest growing industries in the world and its significant in the majority of poor countries that currently affects the livelihoods of many of the world’s poor (WTO, 2009). According to the United Nations Report (2005), the number of international travelers worldwide has grown from 689 million in 2000 to over 764 million in 2004 (Jackson, 2007). Also the international tourism revenues also have grown from US dollar 484 billion to over 633 billion US dollar in same years which represents an average growth rate of six percent.

Tanzania's most well-known tourist attractions are located in the northern part of the country and include Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain. Serengeti National Park is world famous and has spectacular seasonal migrations of animals. The Ngorongoro Conservation Area includes the Ngorongoro Crater, which is an extinct volcanic caldera with lions, hippopotamus, elephants, various types of antelope, the endangered black rhinoceros, and large herds of wildebeest and zebra. Lake Manyara, Kilimanjaro, Arusha, Rubondo Island, Tarangire, and Saanane Island national parks are tourists attractions found in Tanzania.

The western part of Tanzania includes the Mahale, Katavi, and Gombe national parks, the latter of which is the site of Jane Goodall's ongoing study which begun in 1960, of chimpanzee behavior. The southern part of Tanzania includes the Ruaha, Kitulo, Mikumi, and Udzungwa national parks and the Selous Game Reserve. Tourism is also focused on the coast, including Saadani National Park and especially the islands of Unguja and Pemba in Zanzibar and Mafia Island on the further south. Game fishing and diving are the main attractions in these islands. There is also a wide variety of destinations for cultural tourism such as Maasai boma and Bushmen settlement.
Kilimanjaro National Park (KINAPA) has tourist attractions like free-standing, snow-covered dormant volcano, majestic Kilimanjaro is the highest mountain in Africa.  Located in northeast Tanzania, it can be seen from far into Kenya and Amboseli National Park. 75,000 people climb Kilimanjaro every year so it is not the most untouched mountain, nor is it the most arduous (BoT 2009).  However, it is certainly a test of one’s endurance, with altitude sickness the main reason for climbers not to summit.   Although it has become a very popular challenge and the experience slightly crowded with other climbers, we still highly recommend it for anyone with even a vague interest in mountaineering.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The United Republic of Tanzania has launched the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) which also encourages sustainable tourism for poverty reduction (URT, 2005).
It seems that the tourism activities within the area are mostly done by men rather than women. However, poverty is still pre-dominant in the rural areas for both men and women, meaning targeting needs to be intensified in the rural areas. Inequitable access to the means of production (land and capital), the distribution of wealth, reduced access to economic goods and services and remunerative employment are all causes of poverty (Benavides, 2011).
However, tourism is a complex industry, which is driven by the private sector and often by large international companies which have little or no interest in ensuring household subjective well- being. It is also possible that with the current technological development tourism earnings remain outside the destination country due to linkages. In addition, tourism can cause negative effects such as environmental problems, cultural pollution and immoral behavior. The study intended to assess contribution of Tourism towards household subjective well- being to the surrounding environment. Since Tanzania is rapidly becoming a major tourist destination, it was worthwhile to assess the contribution of tourism to the enhancement household subjective well- being.
1.3 Objectives

1.3.1 General objective

The general objective of this study was to identify contribution of Tourism towards household subjective well- being in Machame Village
1.3.2 Specific objectives
The study specifically aimed to:
       (i)  Identify tourism activities carried out in Machame village towards household subjective well- being
       (ii) Determine contributions of tourism activities towards household subjective well- being in Machame Village
       (iii)Identifying current challenges facing tourism towards household subjective well- being in Machame Village
       (iv) Examining means of strengthening tourism activities towards household subjective well- being in Machame

2.0 LITERATURE RIVIEW

2.1 The theory of economic growth on tourism
Economic Growth refers to an increase in a country’s production capacity. Growth may be stimulated by an increase in the quantity or quality of the factors of production such as labor and capital (Wickets, 2006) thus the theory of economic growth, general deals with economics long run trend or potential growth parts. Accordingly to Harold- Dormer model, a full employment equilibrium growth requires that the warranted role of growth should equal to the natural rate of growth. At the equilibrium level the mathematical formula is;
I=S=Y
Where; I = Investment, S = Saving and Y = Income.
From above formula it shows that the growth rate of the investments resulted from the generation of the capital flows which attributed by the expansion of the private investors’ growth in a country (Wickets, 2006). Under economic perspective the linkage between the increasing rate of the of the personal income require the development of both foreign and domestic investors to the country by which eventually will facilitate the income generation for both the national and individual level
According to the Multiplier1 effect of tourism sector to the economic growth of the country, the tourism sector contribute to the development of the other sectors since the an increasing of the supply of the tourism investors led to the an increasing of the related tourism activities like restaurants, hotels, tour guides, selling the cultural hand craft and all others activities related with tourism sectors, thus those may led as the source of income of the household (Andronicou, 2009).
Luvanga and Shitundu (2003) did the study which concern with the role of tourism in poverty alleviation in Tanzania. According to their study tourism activities can affect poverty alleviation positively or negatively. Positive contributions may be registered through employment creation, income generation, and increased asset ownership, contribution to basic needs and contributions to community contributions. However, together with contributions, linkages and multipliers, tourism effects may result in some costs or negative impacts. These may be seen through environmental problems, cultural pollution, immoral behavior and conflicts with other socio economic activities. The impact of tourism sector to an economy of the country direct derive from the income receive by the villagers through direct or indirect employment.

Haji (2011) through her study on prospects and challenges facing women entrepreneurs involved in tourism industry in overcoming poverty. She considered role of women toward the poverty alleviation at the local level and revealed that tourism has the potential to reduce women poverty. She also observed that those who had participated have been positive by benefited from the tourism industry. However, there are several opportunities yet to be utilized by women entrepreneurs. In this respect therefore, it would be more beneficial and profitable for women and men who are entrepreneurs to organize them to reap maximum contributions from tourism industry. Indeed, efforts are needed to enable local entrepreneurs’ in particular local women to withstand the competition of foreigners.

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Paradigms (Philosophy)

In this research, researcher adopted positivism as the philosophical approach in conducting the study. With this phenomenon, the only positive requirements to the respondents on the contribution of tourism to the household subjective well- being

 

3.2 Research Design

Research design is an overall plan that guides the entire process to which research question shall be answered and includes data collection procedures as well as data analysis (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). A cross-sectional survey research design was applied. The design was useful for description purposes as well as for the determination of the relationship between and among the variables. The method consumes less time in data gathering.

3.3 Description of the Study Area

The study was conducted in Machame, in Hai District at Kilimanjaro region. The District is one of the seven districts of Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. It is bordered to the south and west by the ArushaHYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arusha_Region" Region, to the west by the SihaHYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siha" District, to the north by Kenya, and to the east by the MoshiHYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moshi_Rural_District" Rural District and the RomboHYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rombo_District" District (URT, 2012). The western breach part of Mount Kilimanjaro is located in the Hai District. According to the 2012 census, the population of the Hai District was 210 533. Machame Village was selected for study because was among of village having many with idea concerning tourism activities which enabled ensuring validity of data.

3.4 Population, Sample and Sampling Strategies

3.4.1 Population

The population of this study involved villagers in Machame. The target populations of villagers in Machame area were used to select sample size.

3.4.2 Sample Size

In this study 100 villagers in Machame area were sampled using Fisher et al., (1991) for large populations (Exceeding or equal to 10 000) this sample was selected using the formula indicated below

 

Where:
      n =  is the sample size required;
      Z = Standard normal deviation, set at 1.96 (or 2) corresponding to 95% confidence level;
      P =  Is % of population estimated to have a particular characteristics if not known use 50%;
      q = 1-P;
      d/e = degree of accuracy desired, set at 0.1 or 0.02
n = (1.962 x 0.5 x  0.5)
             (0.25)
   = 400 respondents.

 

3.4.3 Sampling Techniques

This study used simple random sampling in gathering of data from study area. Simple random sampling refers to that method of sample selection which gives each member or item an equal opportunity of being picked up and each item in the entire population has an equal chance of being included in the sample (Kothari, 2011). The study identified the target population and then picked up respondents that represented the entire population of the study. In this case, the study had chosen this technique because it eliminates the systematic bias and gives respondents equal chance of being selected.  

3.5 Data and Data Collection

3.5.1 Types of data
In this study, both primary and secondary data were collected based on study objectives. For the first objective, different tourist activities carried out in Machame village were identified such as hand craft, tour operator, selling fruits, hotel activities and entertainment. Those data were obtained from villagers. For the second objective, contributions of tourism sector in Machame Village were identified from both villagers and documents obtained in KINAPA. For the third objective, challenges facing tourism sector in Machame Village such as environmental challenges cultural pollution, immoral behaviors, and exclusive of local people from access to resource were obtained from the villagers. For the forth objective, means of strengthening tourism sector in Machame such as maintaining local culture, motivating domestic tourism and improving infrastructures were obtained from the villagers and KINAPA.

3.5.2 Sources of data
Primary data collection is essential, when researcher cannot collect right information from only from secondary source. Primary data were obtained from selected respondents (villagers) through questionnaires and interview. Secondary data were obtained from already published materials and documents, such as programmed learning text which tells about tourism sector in Machame and Tanzania in general. These sources enabled the researcher to acquire information’s that enabled him to accomplish the research report well as needed.

3.5.3 Data Collection Techniques

Data collection techniques involved a survey technique, documentary review, key informant interview and focus group discussion.
3.6       Data Analysis
The study collected both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data includes data which were quantified and verified, and amenable to statistical manipulation. These data were coded, organized, processed and converted into tables, by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer Software. Qualitative data cannot be expressed as a number. It includes virtually any information that can be captured and not numerical in nature. Nominal data, relating to social-economic characteristics were categorized based on the specific scales, numbers and frequencies. The ordinal data were simply placed into categories based on some common trait and then ranged accordingly from lowest to highest.

4.0 FINDINGS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


The majority of respondents indicated that tourism was supporting other livelihood activities rather than conflicting with them. Several economic activities are practiced in the area of study with varying on it. Thus apart from sale/provision of tourist related products such as tour operation, curio shops and handcraft, supply and sale of agricultural products are also important, there are differences in the intensity/ importance of participation in the different economic activities amongst the area of study. The main objective of this study was to analyze the direct and indirect livelihood impacts from tourism and their implications for poverty alleviation. The sector being the fastest growing sector in Tanzania, the study intended to investigate the contributions and costs of tourism on the society in general and on the poor in particular. In order to achieve this objective the study designed the questions related to generation of foreign exchange and public revenues, employment, incomes, accessibility to assets and basic needs and their effects on the poor, and the linkages of tourism to the local economy. Issues affecting participation/non-participation in tourism and the way respondents perceived tourism were examined.

The study identified that, tourism contributes significantly to the national economy through employment generation, foreign exchange earnings and public revenues. However, the sector is sensitive to global instability caused by phenomena such as terrorism and/or war. So tourism is an important economic activity in the areas of study particularly in activities such as tour operation, curio shops and handcraft sales. However, agricultural activities are also practiced. Employment opportunities for the locals are observed to be in the low cadres with low skills and remuneration. Furthermore Cultural tourism is emerging as an important tourist attraction with no significant investment requirements.

Machame the majority have low education and lack of capital and so tourism need to be encouraged in order to contribute towards poverty alleviation. Tourism in Machame is significant on both direct and indirect employment opportunities. Directly, it is observed that there was substantial employment generation in hotels and so tourism ensure poverty alleviation. Machame opportunities for the locals were mainly observed to be in the lower cadres with low educational/skills requirements and low pay.

There were observable general pattern of increasing contribution of incomes from tourism to villagers and there is a general increase in the number of people receiving incomes from tourist related activities. Given the fact or the ‘common norm’ that always it is difficult to get income data from individuals/villagers, the increase in number may be interpreted as a reflection of increasing opportunities for getting incomes from tourist activities. Moreover, the results reveal significant direct and indirect employment opportunities. Those opportunities provide important sources of incomes to the villagers.

Cultural tourism is emerging as an important tourist activity especially in Moshi and Machame. Given that this type of activity does not require specialized skills and the incomes accrues directly to the performer, it should be viewed positively as a way of reducing poverty in rural areas. As since about 82 percent of those interviewed perceived tourism to be complementing as opposed to only 3 percent who thought that tourism was conflicting other economic activities. However, at times there are competitions or conflicts in the use of resources between tourist activities and other/social economic activities.

Tourism in Machame has strong backward linkages to sectors and activities that most poor people participate in. The linkages thus create opportunities for locals to benefit and alleviate poverty. Total number of participation in various activities was 1050 from which 367 was deducted to account for the young, students and inactive.
There are some unquantifiable negative impacts of tourism that may act against the positive impact on poverty alleviation. These include, among other things, loss of access to resources, environmental degradation, distortion of traditional culture and immoral behavior.

Tourism in Machame has the potential to have both forward and backward linkages to become a pro-poor growth sector. However, there are times when tourism development competes with other activities (normally more familiar to local people) in the use of resources available. Competition may result in the diminishing of resources such as land, water, wood. Depending on the magnitude of the dependency on these resources, the quality of life may as well be affected in the same way (most probably negatively) as the pressure on those resources increase.

Based on conclusion the following recommendations are proposed.
·         There should be an increase to locals perceive tourism to be important and that it generally complements and supports rather than conflicting other economic activities.
·         Tourism sector should be advanced so that it contributes substantially to increased asset ownership and basic needs or livelihoods requirements of the villagers.
·         Tourism should be made strong linkages to other sectors both at national level and at local areas of the study.
·         Tourism should be made better for development as it plays an important role towards poverty alleviation.

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