THE ROLE OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN IMPROVING LIVELIHOOD OF THE POOR PEOPLE



THE ROLE OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN IMPROVING LIVELIHOOD OF THE POOR PEOPLE: A CASE STUDY OF MOSHI MUNICIPALITY
 Africa Natural Tours
Africa Natural Tours (For Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Zanzibar) Tanzania safari company in Moshi
Specialized in:  Wildlife safaris, Mountain climbing, Cultural tourism and Beach holidays in East Africa
Contact +255 653 679 958


By Godfrey A. Ngaiza
(The founder of Africa Natural Tours)

This study focuses on how Tourism Industry can help in improving livehood of the poor in case of Moshi Municipal. Today different organization employs various management techniques to carry out the efficiency functioning of their different sector. Tourism industry is of the sectors that deals with everything that traveler does on a trip-eat, sleep, party, attend a conference, rent a car, take a taxi, shop, change foreign currency and other things of a sort. It means that all of the economic activities of famers, fishermen, cooks, shop keepers, bartenders, tour guides, bank, hotels carnival bands, entertainers, electricians, customs, immigration and literally every job that impacts directly every job that impact directly or indirectly on tourism chain. It is clear that the tourism industry is far reaching and is indeed every body’s business.

The United Kingdom is the world’s 7th biggest tourist’s destination with 29.2 million visiting in 2011. US $17.2 billion was spent in the UK by foreign tourists. Visit Britain data shows that the US remain the most –valuable inbound market, with American visitors spending E2.1 billion in 2010. This has made the economy of UK growth tremendously. In other countries such South Africa there is good tourist destination with around 860,000 arrivals per month (March 2008) of which around 210, 000 ie from outside the African continent. Review adding up to between 1% and 3% of Gross Domestic product (GDP) is generated by the tourism Industry. This has made the economy of South Africa growth in high percentage.

In Tanzania tourists attractions cover 44 percent of Tanzania, land area, all these are game reserves national parks. Tanzania is also home to the famous Roof of Africa, Mount Kilimanjaro. On 6 January 2012 the New York Times awarded Tanzania the 7th among 45 top destinations to visit this year 2012. Tourism industry currently supports 27,000 jobs and generates 25% of Tanzania’s foreign exchange. Tanzania expected to receive one million tourists by the end of 2011 and generate about US $1.7 Billion (About SH 2.7 trillion) in revenue these have resulted to the development of tourism and Tanzania economy at large. However a substantial amount of country expenditure should be spent on tourism to make it more contributing to the growth of national economy.

The general objective of this study is to assess the role of Tourist industry in improving livelihood of the poor specifically, the study will focus on.
    i.To find out the function of tourism industry towards improving livelihood of the poor.
   ii.   To examine the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people
   iii To examine the contribution of tourism industry to nation income.

In view to the stated objectives, the key research questions to be addressed are:
         i   How tourism industry help livelihood of the poor?
     ii.What are the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of the people?
       iii  How much tourism industry contributes to national income?

2.1 Country policy review

Tanzania national tourism policy. A policy to promote the economy and livelihood of the people, essentially poverty alleviation, through encouraging the development of sustainable and quality tourism that is culturally and socially acceptable, ecologically friendly, environmentally sustainable, and economically viable. It is also sought to market Tanzania as a favored tourist destination for touring and adventure (a wildlife safari) in a country renowned for its cultural diversity and numerous beaches.

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

Research design is the plan showing the approach and strategy of investigation aimed at obtaining valid and able data that achieves research objectives in this study, a case of Moshi Municipal will be adopted. Thus, the main areas of concentration will be top management and tourism industry department. This is simply because the case and study will enable to study deeply few cases in the system. Data from case studies are greatly comprehensive and reliable because of their ability to explore instances in depth and enables the research to get the information which is purposive and comprehensive. Also the researcher employing case study design is enabling to examine small number of units that are extracted from a large number of variables and conditions.

3.2 Description of the study area

The study will be carried in Moshi region. The number of employees at Moshi Municipal is about more than two hundred. This means that all workers from different departments like tourism industry management, tourism staff, user of departments and accounting department.

3.3 Data Collection

Data is a source of information aimed at providing some facts (Kothari, 2004).Through this, the researcher will obtain the specific information the study area for the fulfillment of the research objective.

3.3.1 Types of data

The study will apply both two types of data, that is primary data and secondary data. The primary data will be collected through interviews, questionnaires and observation. This include about the tourism industry activities carried out at Moshi Municipal, the role of tourism in improving livelihood of the poor people and the strategies used in improving tourism industry in Moshi Municipal. The secondary data are these which have already  been collected by someone else and which passed through the statistical process. This involves collection and analysis of published materials and information from internal sources. This data will be obtained from the tourism industry department both published and un published research on Tourism Management.

3.3.2 Sources of data

Data can be obtained from different sources both published and unpublished materials and other internal sources such as books, journals, newspapers, articles and other relevant sources provided by the tourism industry, tourist and accounting department from Moshi Municipal that support the researcher to collect the valuable information about the role of tourism industry in improving livelihood of the poor.

3.3.3 Techniques of Data Collection

The study will apply observation, interview, questionnaire and documentary review in order together information which is fact and focusing on the study.

(i) Interview
Both structured and unstructured interview will be employed. The tool of data collection will be questionnaire which will consist of list of pre-set question. Both open ended and closed ended questionnaire will be applied especially issues which are difficult to be understood from observation and questionnaire. This will base on how to find out the function of tourism industry towards improving livelihood of the poor, to examine the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people in Moshi and to examine the contribution of tourism to National income.

(ii) Questionnaire
Questionnaires will be prepared and printed on a paper concerning the study area. These questionnaire will be both opened ended and closed ended. They will be distributed to the respondents who will answer the questions. The significant behind this is to have more responses from the respondents whom it will be impossible to be interviewed due to time constraints and data can be collected from the large sample, confidentiality is upheld. These questionnaire are derived from the research objectives like to find out the function of tourism towards improving livelihood of the poor, to examine the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people in Moshi and to examine the contribution of tourism to National income. All these questions are posed to different respondents from the following departments of tourism industry, accounting departments and staffs.

(iii) Observation
This tools provides information about the actual behaviours, (Kothari, 2004( Direct observation allows the researcher to be put behavior in context and understanding it better. Observation will be used together first hand information or data from field. Observation will be useful techniques of data collection from the activities performed by tourism industry departments. This will be done through participating and observing the activities performed by tourism industry unit.

(iv) Documentary review
These include the relevant written documents both published and unpublished, prepared by the tourism industry in Moshi Municipal in which researcher is expecting to collect data. This includes journals, books, report and magazines. The researcher will use this method so as to obtain secondary data necessary to answer the research questions basing on to find out the function of tourism industry towards improving livelihood of the poor, to examine the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people in Moshi and to examine the contribution of tourism industry to National income.
Table 1: Data Collection table Matrix
Research objective
Research questions
Types of data to collected
Source of data
Actor or respondent
To find out the function of tourism industry towards improving livelihood.
How tourism industry help livelihood of the poor?
Both qualitative and quantitative data are to be clearly interpreted.
The data from various source sources the organization like National park.
Tourism Management unit and uses of National park.
To examine the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people.
What are the relationship between tourism industry and livelihood of people
Mostly qualitative data is relevant, insights verbal reports and verification of quotations can be used.
Data may be found from tourism departments and operation staffs which participate in day to day activities.
To management and employees can able to compare and interpret data given by the two.
To examine the contribution of tourism industry to the National income
How much tourism industry contribute to National income
Qualitative and quantitative data
Data from journals, papers published and magazine on the relevant topic.

Public tourism regulatory Authority.

3.4 Sampling

This section will help the research to look on sample frame/population, sample size and the sampling techniques.

3.4.1Sample frame/population

Sample frame is the elementary units or group of such unity may be from the basis of sampling process in which the case, they are called sample unit (Kothari, 2004). The population study will involve surveying of organization, to identify sample unit in Moshi Municipal. The population will be obtained from tourism industry management (TIM (tourism staff, user department and accounting department.

3.4.2Sample size

The study will take the sample size one hundred and fifty (150), people from four departments include tourism industry management, tourism staff, user departments and accounting department from Moshi Municipal. The researcher will collect data 30 members from tourism industry management, 30 members of tourism staff, 50 Members of user departments and 40 members from accounting departments.
Table number 2: Sample size
S/N
Name of respondent
Total number of respondent
Male
(M
Female
(F
Percentages
1.
Tourism industry management
30
15
15
20%
2.
Tourism staff
30
15
15
20%
3.
Users departments
50
25
25
33.3%
4.
Accounting department
40
20
20
26%
Total

150
75
75
100%







3.4.3 Sampling techniques

The researcher will use purposive sampling as it is based on the promise that the researcher judgment will enable him to systematically select these elements from which he can get the best and most reliable responses. The researcher sample with the purpose in the sample from the following departments, tourism industry management, tourism staff, user departments and accounting department.

The study will apply both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. Qualitative data analysis is used to describe a type of information that can be counted and expressed numerically.    Quantitative data can be represented visually in graphs, histograms, table and charts statistical package for social science (SPSS) will be used to analyze quantitative data obtained from the field. Qualitative data analysis is used to describe a type of information inform of explanation, understanding or interpreting of the people and situation that investigated. Qualitative data analysis is usually based on an interpretation of the information.
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