HOUSEHOLD SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF HALF-MILE FORESTRY STRIP WITHDRAW ALONG MOUNT KILIMANJARO IN MOSHI DISTRICT


HOUSEHOLD SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF HALF-MILE FORESTRY STRIP WITHDRAW ALONG MOUNT KILIMANJARO IN MOSHI DISTRICT
 Africa Natural Tours
: Africa Natural Tours (For Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Zanzibar) Tanzania safari company in Moshi
Specialized in:  Wildlife safaris, Mountain climbing, Cultural tourism and Beach holidays in East Africa
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By Godfrey A. Ngaiza
(The founder of Africa Natural Tours)

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The concept of parks and protected areas and the aforementioned management approaches first became explicit in the creation and custodial management of different National Park. In the 1970s and 1980s, scientists examined biological preservation not as merely acreage preserved, but rather the quality of biological diversity that existed within parks and protected areas (Sharma, 2012). Given that an abundance of rich biological diversity existed in developing countries (Barrow, 2015). The 1982 World Parks Congress in Bali recommended that all nations should strive to allocate 10% of their lands under protection (Salmi and Monela, 2010).

Mount Kilimanjaro is the oldest protected area in Africa and was first declared as a game reserve by the German colonial government in the early part of the 20th century (Hakikazi, 2014). The area was further gazetted as a forest reserve in 1921 (Monela, 2015). This designation was confirmed by the legislation of subsequent administrations (Salmi and Monela, 2010). The area above the main forest line (2,700 metres) was reclassified in 1973 by the Tanzanian Government to form a National Park, covering 75,353 hectares, surrounded by a Forest Reserve of 107,828 hectares. Mt. Kilimanjaro National Park was inscribed on the World Heritage list in 1987, the seventh World Heritage Site in Tanzania (Dery et al., 2009).

The half mile forest strip (HMFS) is a narrow strip of forest located southern of Mount Kilimanjaro. It is aligned west to east forming a better of the Kilimanjaro forest reserve. The forest is a part of the Kilimanjaro forest reserve and if stretches from Kikeriver on the northeast to Sanya river or the southwest cutting across Hai Moshi rural and Rombo district.

The half-mile forestry strip (HMFS) on Mount Kilimanjaro is one of the oldest social and buffer forests in East Africa (Mariki, 2011). A review of the history of the management of the HMFS on Mount Kilimanjaro is instructive in light of the current concern about the conservation of Mount Kilimanjaro. Such a review should be useful in providing forest managers with potential approaches towards improving the current management of the forest resources on Mount Kilimanjaro (Barrow, 2015).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Mount Kilimanjaro is the dominant economic resource in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania (Monela, et al., 2015). The dominance of using Mount Kilimanjaro lays a foundation of the formation of HMFS benefits, because HMFS are believed to play a crucial role in social-economical benefits (Salmi and Monela, 2010). In Kilimanjaro Region, Moshi district in particular because is the district with many villagers which are surrounding mount Kilimanjaro and so every people would obtain HMFS benefits because most of them are located around mount (Ghazi et al., 2015).
Despite the benefits assigned by the HMFS to the surrounding society, it is over untried such that there was environmental degradation (Sharma, 2012).  This situation caused Half-Mile Forestry Strip Withdraw along Mount Kilimanjaro. However, studies on the social-economic effects of half-mile forestry strip withdraw along mount Kilimanjaro in Moshi district are not available. Therefore, this study will explore the social-economical effects of half-mile forestry strip withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in Moshi district.

1.3 Research Objectives

1.3.1 General objective

The main objective of the study is to assess the household socio-economic effects of HMFS withdraw along Mount Kilimanjaro in Moshi district.

1.3.2    Specific objectives

Specifically, the study will intend to;        
(i) To examine the HMFS services that was accessed by households before withdrawn from using it
(ii) To determine the economic effects of half-mile forestry strip withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in the study area;  
(iii) To determine the socio effects on HMFS withdraw among the local people in the study area

1.4 Research Questions

(i) What are HMFS services that were accessed by households before withdrawn from using it?
(ii) What are economic effects of half-mile forestry strip withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in the study area?
(iii) What are socio effects of HMFS withdraw among the local people in the study area?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study intends to assist policy makers including ministries; parliament and government agencies to appreciate the role of HMFS towards its surrounding households. Also it will broaden the literatures based on challenges use of HMFS. The result of this study may also be beneficial to national and international organization, donor agencies and other organization which aim to support HMFS. The study will generate new knowledge and idea to the public   in the field of the study. This study will also help community households to get awareness on the position of HMFS in the communities.
 Furthermore this study will help NGO’s to analyze various problems facing HMFS and the means of addressing such problems facing tourism industry in public organization. The study will help other research to add knowledge and facilitate the interest of the other researchers under the same field conduct further research on the same field. The study will be the policy makers to have knowledge that will help them to make informal decision towards developing HMFS that works effectively. The study will help the readers and other researchers of this work to understand different terms and concepts used in this study.
The study is significant to TANAPA Management, Moshi district’s people and other related stakeholders as it will enforce TANAPA to restructure terms and conditions of providing benefits to Moshi district’s people towards HMFS along Mount Kilimanjaro. Also the study is of great importance as it addresses HMFS challenges as it limits the efforts of poverty reduction hence the Moshi district’s people found alternative sources of income for their life. Further finding will enable the TANAPA to develop better services of products to Moshi district’s people.


2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Review

Decision theory

The present study is guided by Decision theory. The theory is famous known as choice under uncertainty theory. This theory represents the heart of decision theory. The procedure of the theory referred to as expected value. The theory is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision. The idea of expected value is that, when faced with a number of actions, each of which could give rise to more than one possible outcome with different probabilities, the rational procedure is to identify all possible outcomes, determine their values (positive or negative) and the probabilities that will result from each course of action, and multiply the two to give an expected value. The action to be chosen should be the one that gives rise to the highest total expected value (Pascal, 1670).
This theory has been adopted since HMFS withdraw, taken into account positive and negative value of the decision action. Upon their action, researcher is intrigued to undertake the study on the real social-economical effects of HMFS withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in Moshi district.
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
The study will conducted in Moshi district; the district has been chosen because it is the district with large number of villages which were under the HMFS programme, where it had 39 villages out of 65, others like Rombo district had 13 villages, Hai had 8 villages and Siha had only 5 villages. Moshi district has a total number of 157 Villages. According to the 2012 housing and population census the district has a total population of 466 737 people and the population density of 234.3 people per square kilometer .The main economic activities in the district include crop cultivation and livestock keeping.
3.3.1    Sampling frame and sample size
K=N/n
K= Sampling Fraction
N= Total number of villages
N= Sample size
The proposed villages for this study include Mweka village which has 1102 households, Sugu village (551 households), Lole Marera village (1408 households) and the Maringa village (773). This makes that the total number of households in the selected villages to be 3834 households. According to Bailey (1994) a sample of 30 respondents is the bare minimum for studies in which statistical analysis can be done regardless of the population size. Basing on the purpose of the study, the sample size of 120 respondents shall be adequate for statistical analysis and accuracy of the responses and therefore each of the selected village shall be represented by 30 households. 
The multistage stage sampling techniques to select the district, villages has been used. This method allows more than one sampling method to be used (Kothari, 2004). Both probability and non-probability sampling methods shall be applied, and the units of analysis for the survey during the study shall be heads of households, whereby all heads of the households will have equal chances of being included in the survey.
Purposeful sampling has been applied to pick Moshi District among the other districts which were involved in the HMFS programme. This is because Moshi District had a large number of villages (39 villages) which were involved in the HMFS programme as compared to other three districts like Rombo (13 villages), Hai (8 villages) while Siha had only 5 villages. Purposeful sampling shall also be used to identify respondents for the key informant interviews; this will include District Officers and Village Executive Officers and Extension Officers.
3.4       Data Collection
Primary data will be collected from households in respective areas. Secondary data will be collected through review of different TANAPA reports and forest department of Moshi District including forest performance reports and annual HMFS benefits reports.
3.4.3.1 Surveying Technique
To assess the evidence of the study variables, a questionnaire tool will be deployed for data collection. Questionnaire will comprise of closed and open ended questions and will be administered to households. The advantages of using questionnaire include the ability to collect lot of data within a short time. Moreover, it will serve time, since respondents will spend short time. The dully filled questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents and those who selected randomly due to homogenous characteristics will be filled the questionnaire in order to capture their views that were used during analysis.

3.4.3.2 Documentary review
Under this method of data collection the following physical objects or documents will be used during outside sources of data in order to furnish the study objectives which were primarily dependent on questionnaire and interview concerned with HMFS. These documents will include the TANAPA audited performance reports, environmental conservation report and forest management report. The advantage of using this technique includes having access to data which respondents might have forgotten and also access to reliable sources.

3.4.3.3 Key informant interview
Interview will be conducted to key informants so that to provide adequate information about particular cases of interest to the study. The information to be collected are effects of the household economic activities after the withdrawn from the use of HMFS to households and social effects of HMFS withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in Moshi district.

3.4.3.4 Focus group discussion

The study will make a group discussion with leaders of the community so that to obtain view of households on HMFS.  The information to be collected is HMFS access to household energy among the households and effects of the household economic activities after the withdrawn from the use of HMFS to households. These techniques will enable obtaining of different information at the same time.
Data analysis will be done using quantitative and qualitative approaches so that obtain descriptive statistics and narration statistics. The analysis of quantitative data will deploy a descriptive statistics where frequency and percentages will be computed. Qualitative data will be analyzed using content analysis of which it will categorized opinions, comments and ideas of leaders and reported concurrently with quantitative data. The first objective which is to examine the HMFS services that was accessed by households before withdrawn from using it will be analyzed quantitatively through descriptive analysis by using frequencies and percent, mean and standard deviation. The second objective which is to determine the economic effects of half-mile forestry strip withdraw among the local people along Mount Kilimanjaro in the study area will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through narration of idea from respondent and   mean and standard deviation respectively. The third objective which is to determine the socio effects on HMFS withdraw among the local people in the study area will be analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively through narration of idea from respondent and   mean and standard deviation respectively

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