THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM SECTOR IN CREATING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN KILIMANJARO REGION, TANZANIA Africa Natural Tours




 
THE CONTRIBUTION OF TOURISM SECTOR IN CREATING EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN KILIMANJARO REGION, TANZANIA 
Africa Natural Tours
: Africa Natural Tours (For Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Zanzibar) Tanzania safari company in Moshi
Specialized in:  Wildlife safaris, Mountain climbing, Cultural tourism and Beach holidays in East Africa
Contact +255 653 679 958


By Godfrey A. Ngaiza
(The founder of Africa Natural Tours)

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Tourism linkages occur through the obvious channel of distribution from the supplier to the consumer as in a hotel, but also through linkages between tourism and other productive and service sectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing, transport and construction related value added activities stem from non-hotel expenditures by travelers on leisure, entertainment and shopping which generally particularly stimulate traditional culture activities, tourist services and handcrafts (Isaac, 2012). The corollary objective for an enhance tourism investment program is to generate employment directly in the tourism sector and in linked production and service sectors as well as to increase household earnings for local people involved in the sector and in its related activities (Briguglio, 2006). 

The government of Tanzania views tourism as a significant industry in terms of job creation, poverty alleviation and foreign exchange earnings.(Kweka 2014). Tourism today is receiving a greater attention than ever before from international development Agencies and from National tourism policy and strategies in Tanzania governments. To many countries, tourism is the highest foreign exchange earner and   an important provider of employment (Kweka, 2014). Statistics available also indicate that, Africa’s market share in 1999 was 2.0% Given the size of our continent, the beauty of Africa, the diversity and uniqueness of tourism attractions in Africa, there  is still room for a bigger growth in both tourist arrivals and receipts. Tanzania is therefore determined to have its fare share in this important industry, whereby the sector plays a vital role in the country’s economic development and it is one of the major sources of foreign exchange (WTO, 2002).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The United Republic of Tanzania has launched the National Strategy for Growth of employment opportunities which is encouraged by tourism (URT, 2015). Employment problem is currently a major concern for many developing countries including Tanzania. Travel and Tourism directly supported 467,000 jobs or 4.3% of total employment in Tanzania and 12.2% of total employment with 1,337,000 jobs (Luvanga and Shitundu, 2013).
According to Makame (2007) tourism sector is mostly important to the local community in Zanzibar, in northern region there is a number of people come to work in the hotel sector while Kweka (2004) indicated that tourism contributes to economic growth in Tanzania. Bryden (2013) in his study indicated that there is a contribution of tourism to poverty reduction in developing countries and so sustainable tourism can act as a catalyst for socio-economic development and poverty reduction, through job creation and productive employment preservation of the natural environmental and cultural traditions and investments of tax revenues derived from tourism activities in education, health and infrastructure development. Furthermore Briguglio (2006) studied on Sustainable Tourism and he showed its importance is gaining widespread recognition.

Despites of the studies done on tourism, no a study examined the contribution of tourism sector in creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. Therefore this study will examine the contribution of tourism sector in creating employment opportunities specifically in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania.

1.3 Research Objective

1.3.1 General objective

To examine the contribution of tourism sector in creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

1.3.2 Specific objective

(i)     Identify tourism activities carried out in Kilimanjaro region towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

(ii)   To identify challenges facing accessing the employment from tourism sector in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

(iii) Examining means of strengthening tourism activities towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

1.4 Research Questions

        i.            What are tourism activities carried out in Kilimanjaro region towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania?

      ii.            What are challenges facing accessing the employment from tourism sector in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania?

    iii.            What are means of strengthening tourism activities towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania?

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Tourism Development towards Employment Creation in Tanzania

The strength of the appeal of Tanzania to tourist product is dominated by natural assets of the country. The assessment is that by any standards, Tanzania is an exceptionally beautiful and interesting country. With its 12 National parks, 31 Game reserves, 38 Game controlled areas, a Conservation area and Marine park, Tanzanians wildlife resources are considered among the finest in the world and have been widely known for many years. They include the great Serengeti plains, the spectacular Ngorongoro Crater, Lake Manyara and Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, in the north, Mikumi, Udzungwa and Ruaha National parks and Selous game Reserve in the south. Additional natural attractions include the sandy beaches in the north and south of Dar es Salaam and the excellent deep-sea fishing at Mafia.
Tanzania has a rich heritage of archaeological, historical and rock painting sites, a number of which have been designated to World Heritage Sites. At Olduvai Gorge, in the interior Rift Valley, is the site of discoveries of the traces of earliest man, and along the Indian Ocean are the remains of settlements. To a tourist, Tanzania offers interesting culture and crafts, most notably the Maasai culture and art and the Makonde sculptures and carvings the list is endless (Haji, 2011).

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

In this study, a cross-sectional research design will be deployed. The benefit of a cross-sectional study design is that will allow the study to compare different variables. Applying this design will help to collect data concerning  tourism activities carried out in Kilimanjaro region, challenges facing accessing the employment from tourism sector and means of strengthening tourism activities towards creating employment opportunities so as to examine the contribution of tourism sector in creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania.

3.2 Description of the study Area

3.3 Sampling

3.3.1    Sample population and Sample size

The sampling frame will comprise households from Hotels/ Lodge, Tours Companies, Curio Shops, Guide and porters association, tented camps and TANAPA in Kilimanjaro Region. From the sample frame, according to Fisher, 1991 sample size will be 384 households.

3.3.3 Sampling techniques

The study will use simple random sampling technique. Simple random sampling through providing an equal chance of selecting households, a total of 384 respondents will be drawn from Hotels/ Lodge, Tours Companies, Curio Shops, Guide and porters association, tented camps and TANAPA. This technique enables the researcher to extract the right and intended data and information from the respondents who have enough knowledge on the subject matter.

3.4 Data Collection

3.4.1 Types and Sources of Data

For the purpose of this study, the study will collect primary data and secondary data which will involve socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, tourism activities, challenges facing accessing the employment from tourism and means of strengthening tourism activities towards creating employment opportunities


For this study, primary data will be collected from households and secondary data will be collected from existing literature on employment to community. Secondary data for this study will involve a review of a number of books, reports, study journal, magazines and newsletter, previous study which are relevant to the study. This data will be taken from TANAPA office in Kilimanjaro region.

3.4.2 Data Collection Techniques

The study will use various methods and techniques of collecting both primary and secondary data during the study. The researcher will use interviews and questionnaires as methods and techniques of collecting data.
3.4.2.1 Interview       
Interview will be conducted to collect qualitative information such as opinions and views of the study. Interviews will be guided by interview TANAPA staff, Tours Company, curio shops and guide and porters association will be interviewed during data collection; they will be able to come up with the answers on interview questions. The advantages of using interview is quick method of gathering information, the study will identify whether the respondents understands the questions and the method is not restricted to educated class alone.

3.4.2.2 Surveying
Under this technique questionnaire tool will be used. Questionnaire is a pre-formulated written set of questions to which respondents record their answers, usually within rather closely defined alternatives. Questionnaires will contain open as well as closed-ended questions, which allowed individuals to express their views concerning importance of tourism in creating employment to community. The questionnaires will be distributed to household by researcher aimed at getting information regarding the contribution of tourism sector in creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro Region.

3.4.2.3 Documentary Review
In section various written sources such as guide and porter association reports, journals on employment creation by tourism sector and employment creation policies will be reviewed by a researcher so as to obtain the required information. The document to be reviewed will be obtained from TANAPA Kilimanjaro office and the document to be revered will be annual employment rate report, annual report on the performance of tourism sector.

3.5 Reliability and Validity of Data

3.5.1 Data Reliability

Cronbach's alpha test which is a coefficient of reliability (or consistency) will be used to determine the internal consistency or reliability of data.  This will be done through observing a reliability coefficient of 0.70 or higher as "acceptable" in most social research situations. In addition a cut-off of 0.6 is common for many explanatory researches although Miller and others (2001) suggest that alpha should be 0.7 or higher to retain a variable in “adequate scale”. This helps to reveal how closely related the items under each factor are as a group.  A "high" value of alpha is often used (along with substantive arguments and possibly other statistical measures) as evidence that the items measure an underlying (or latent) construct.

 

3.5.2 Validity

Kombo and Tromp (2006); describe validity as referring to whether the instrument is describing what was intended to be described or measured. It is the ability to which the results of a study can be verified against the stated objectives. Prior to the actual study, the research will be conducted informal visits to the area of study in order to be familiar with the respondents. Also it will be ensured throughout the study by data triangulation using different data collection methods including surveying, interview and documentary review In order to ensure, validity of research data or information, the researcher carried out a trial exercise which will enable the researcher to make necessary corrections to the study instrument in order to improve validity of information from the actual research

3.6 Data Analysis Technique

Both qualitative and quantitative data will be analysed from primary and secondary sources. Quantitative approach will be applied to analyze data collected and stored in numerical values. The analysis of quantitative data will be through the use of SPSS computer software version 20. Several steps will be adopted during the SPSS process;
The first objective being analysis of tourism activities carried out in Kilimanjaro region towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro Tanzania will be analyzed through descriptive statistics, in terms of means and frequencies.

The third objective which is to identify challenges facing the community in accessing employment from tourism sector will be analyzed through descriptive statistics, in terms of means and frequencies.

The third objective being analysis means of strengthening tourism activities towards creating employment opportunities in Kilimanjaro Tanzania will be analyzed through descriptive statistics, in terms of means and frequencies.



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